Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of presentation - Going concern
Basis of presentation - Going concern

These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, or GAAP and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, related to annual reports filed on Form 10-K, assuming the Company will continue as a going concern. The going concern assumption contemplates the realization of assets and satisfaction of liabilities in the normal course of business. However, substantial doubt about the Company's ability to continue as a going concern exists.

As of December 31, 2022, the Company had an accumulated deficit of approximately $464.3 million, cash and investment balances of approximately $47.0 million, and working capital of approximately $37.2 million. In order for the Company to meet its capital requirements, and continue to operate, additional financing will be necessary. The Company is evaluating strategies to obtain the required additional funding for future operations. These strategies may include, but are not limited to, obtaining equity financing, and restructuring of operations to decrease expenses. However, given the impact of the economic downturn on the U.S. and global financial markets, the Company may be unable to access further equity or when needed. As such, there can be no assurance that the Company will be able to obtain additional liquidity when needed or under acceptable terms, if at all. The consolidated financial statements do not reflect any adjustments to the carrying amounts and classification of assets, liabilities, and reported expenses that may be necessary if the Company were unable to continue as a going concern. Such adjustments may be material.

The functional and presentation currency of the Company is the US dollar.

Basis of consolidation
Basis of consolidation:

These consolidated financial statements include the accounts of its subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions, balances, revenue, and expenses are eliminated on consolidation.

Significant accounting policies, estimates and judgments
Significant accounting policies, estimates and judgments

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements requires management to make judgments, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of accounting policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual outcomes could differ from those estimates. The consolidated financial statements contain estimates, which by their nature, are uncertain.

The impacts of such estimates are pervasive throughout the consolidated financial statements and may require accounting adjustments based on future occurrences.

The estimates and underlying assumptions are reviewed on a regular basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognized in the period in which the estimate is revised and in any future periods affected.


The Company’s operating leases of tangible property with terms greater than twelve months are recognized as right of use assets, which represents the lessee’s right to use, or control the use of, a specified asset for the lease term, and a corresponding lease liability, which represents the lessee’s obligation to make lease payments under a lease, measured on a discounted basis. Landlord inducements in the form of free rent periods are netted against lease payments to the landlord in measuring right-of-use assets and lease liabilities.

Cash and cash equivalents

(e) Cash and cash equivalents:

Cash and cash equivalents are short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of 90 days or less as of the date of purchase. Cash equivalents are accounted for an amortized cost basis, which approximates their fair value due to their short-term maturities.


Investments consist of term deposits with original maturities greater than 90 days and are classified by management as securities available-for-sale. These available-for-sale securities are recorded at estimated fair values. Unrealized gains and losses on these investments are recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI) in shareholder’s equity. Realized gains and losses and declines in value that are judged to be other than temporary are included in interest income.

Concentration of risk
Concentration of risk:

The Company is subject to credit risk from the Company’s cash and cash equivalents and investments. The carrying amount of the financial assets represents the maximum credit exposure. The Company manages credit risk associated with its cash and cash equivalents and investments by maintaining minimum standards of R1‑low or A‑low investments and the Company invests only in highly rated corporations and treasury bills, which are capable of prompt liquidation.

The Company has cash accounts in Canada and the US. The Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation (CDIC) and the US Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) provide insurance to protect depositors against the loss of their deposits in case of a bank failure. However, the maximum amount of coverage varies by jurisdiction and account type. In Canada, the CDIC insures eligible deposits up to $100,000 (CAD) per depositor, per insured category, per member institution. In the United States, the FDIC insures deposits up to $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category. It is important to note that not all deposits are eligible for insurance coverage. For example, deposits in foreign currency, deposits held in trust, and investments such as mutual funds, stocks, and bonds are not insured by either the FDIC or CDIC.

The Company is subject to intermediary risk associated with the actions of financial intermediaries, such as banks or investment managers, who act on behalf of clients to buy and sell assets. The Company has diversified the investments with two large financial institutions to reduce the concentration of risk in any one institution, and spread the risk. This measure reduces the likelihood of being significantly impacted by the failure of a single financial institution.

The Company has reduced the exposure to individual investment vehicles to minimize the risk of loss in case of adverse events. The Company has diversified the investment portfolio across different asset classes and investment vehicles to achieve this goal.

Property and equipment

(h) Property and equipment:

Property and equipment is measured at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses. Cost includes expenditures that are directly attributable to the acquisition of the asset. The Company records depreciation at rates that charge operations with the cost of the assets over their estimated useful lives on a straight‑line basis as follows:


Office furniture


5 years

Laboratory equipment


5 years

Computer hardware


3 years

Computer software


3 years

Leasehold improvements


Life of lease


The residual value, useful life and methods of depreciation of the assets are reviewed at each reporting period and adjusted prospectively if appropriate.

Research and development
Research and development:

Research and development (R&D) costs are expensed as incurred. R&D costs consist primarily of salaries and benefits, stock-based compensation, manufacturing, contract services, clinical trials and research related overhead. Non-refundable advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research are recorded in prepaid and other assets and are expensed when the services are performed.

The Company records expenses for research and development activities based on Management’s estimates of services received and efforts expended pursuant to contracts with vendors that conduct research and development on the Company’s behalf. The financial terms vary from contract to contract and may result in uneven payment flows as compared with services performed or products delivered. As a result, the Company is required to estimate research and development expenses incurred during the period, which impacts the amount of accrued expenses and prepaid balances related to such costs as of each balance sheet date. Management estimates the amount of work completed through discussions with internal personnel and the contract research and contract manufacturing organizations as to the progress or stage of completion of the services. The Company’s estimates are based on a number of factors, including the Company’s knowledge of the status of each of the research and development project milestones, and contract terms together with related executed change orders. Management makes significant judgments and estimates in determining the accrued balance at the end of each reporting period.

Fair value
Fair value:

The Company measures its financial assets and liabilities at fair value. The carrying amounts for the Company’s financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their fair value due to their short maturities. Fair value is the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

Stock-based compensation
Stock-based compensation:

The Company has a stock‑based compensation plan (the “Plan”) available to officers, directors, employees, and consultants with grants under the Plan approved by the Company’s Board of Directors. Under the Plan, the exercise price of each option equals the closing trading price of the Company’s stock on the day prior to the grant if the grant is made during the trading day or the closing trading price on the day of the grant if the grant is issued after markets have closed. Vesting is provided for at the discretion of the Board of Directors and the expiration of options is to be no greater than 10 years from the date of grant.

The Company uses the fair value based method of accounting for employee awards granted under the Plan. The Company calculates the fair value of each stock option grant using the Black‑Scholes option pricing model at the grant date. The stock‑based compensation cost of the options is recognized as stock‑based compensation expense over the relevant vesting period of the stock options using an estimate of the number of options that will eventually vest.

Stock options awarded to non‑employees are measured at the grant-date fair value of the equity instruments issued in accordance with FASB accounting standards update No 2018-07, Topic 718.

The Company has a stock incentive plan pursuant to which the Board may grant equity settled stock‑based awards comprised of restricted stock units or dividend equivalents to employees, officers, consultants, independent contractors, advisors and non‑employee directors of the Company. Compensation cost for restricted share units is measured at fair value at the date of grant, which is the market price of the underlying security, and is expensed over the award’s vesting period on a straight-line basis using an estimate of the number of awards that will eventually vest.

Segment reporting
Segment reporting:

Operating segments are identified as components of an enterprise about which separate discrete financial information is available for evaluation by the chief operating decision-maker, or CODM. The Company’s Chief Executive Officer serves as its CODM. The Company views its operations and manages its business as one segment, which is the discovery and development of personalized therapies addressing unmet medical needs in oncology. The Company operates primarily in the US.

Loss per share
Loss per share:

Basic loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. Diluted loss per share is computed similarly to basic loss per share except that the weighted average share outstanding is increased to include additional shares for the assumed exercise of stock options and warrants, if dilutive. The number of additional shares is calculated by assuming that outstanding stock options and warrants were exercised and that the proceeds from such exercises were used to acquire common stock at the average market price during the year. The inclusion of the Company’s stock options and warrants in the computation of diluted loss per share has an anti‑dilutive effect on the loss per share and, therefore, they have been excluded from the calculation of diluted loss per share.

Income taxes
Income taxes:

The Company accounts for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the estimated future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted rates in effect for the year in which these temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Valuation allowances are provided if, based on the weight of available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

The Company provides reserves for potential payments of tax to various tax authorities related to uncertain tax positions and other issues. Reserves are based on a determination of whether and how much of a tax benefit taken by the Company in its tax filing is more likely than not to be realized following resolution of any potential contingencies present related to the tax benefit. Potential interest and penalties associated with such uncertain tax positions are recorded as components of income tax expense. As of December 31, 2022 and December 31, 2021, the Company has not recorded any reserves for potential payments as the Company has a history of losses and does not have any revenue from operations.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

(o) Recent Accounting Pronouncements

There were various accounting standards and interpretations issued recently, none of which are expected to have a material impact on our financial position, operations, or cash flows.